Scientists and some of us have known for a long time that those who are consistently overweight for years (BMI over 27) can find it more difficult to shift some of that stubborn fat than those lean folk (BMI below 24) or those that don’t allow themselves to be overweight for long periods of time (those that intermittently lose weight). Usually it is fat around the hips and waist that is most stubborn, hence why we often see folks in the gym performing countless stomach exercises such as crunches in the hope that this will burn the fat around the stubborn mid-section – it wont! The longer you are fat, the tougher it is to convince the body not only to get lean, but certainly stay lean – Why is this?
Fat cells (Adipocytes) can last up to EIGHT YEARS in your body, before they die off and get replaced by new fat cells. In people who are overweight for years the older fat cells change their structure in a way that makes them less susceptible to being used for fuel (oxidised) . They become completely different from fat cells in lean folk.
These long-term fat cells develop thick overcoats around the intracellular lipid (fat) droplets and this overcoat protects them from being used as fuel. It does so by regulating the access of an enzyme called HSL ( hormone sensitive lipase) that wants to cut up ( hydrolyze) the lipid fat ( triglyceride) into free fatty acids and glycerol of which the body can then use it as fuel (mechanism known as LYPOLYSIS).
These protetive coats are made of a tough protein called PERILIPIN, meaning, “around the fat”.
The fat cells of lean folk do not develop these overcoats, and therefore their fat is readily available to be used for fuel.
Fat cells around the midsection and hips of overweight folk, have usually been there longest, and therefore had chance to develop the thickest protective coats (PERILLIPIN).
Researchers from Baylor College of Medicine (Houston) reported that mice lacking perilipin, a protein found in fat cells, had less body fat than normal mice, and that these mice could eat a high-fat diet without becoming obese. Perilipin clearly acts to retain fat in humans and other animals.
Perilipin was discovered in 1990 by NIH scientist Constantine Londos, who hired Dawn Brasaemle, an expert on lipid metabolism, to investigate the protein at his laboratory.
In her current research, Brasaemle, inserted perilipin into cells that normally don't contain it. She found that this caused the cells to store much more fat.
The answer was that the protein made the fat stay in the cells longer."
In a another study, Baylor scientists removed perilipin from fat cells and compared these altered cells to normal fat cells. They found that fat is broken down faster in the perilipen-free fat cells than in normal fat cells.
So the completely different strategy led to the same idea, which is that the function of the protein overcoat is to protect fat from breakdown. If the cells have it, they don't break down fat quickly, and they store it.
Perilipin is tough and almost impenetrable by normal oxidation of fat during exercise, and during calorie-restricted diets – this is why these old fat cells are so stubborn and difficult to lose.
Fortunately, you can fix it. Scientists have known for a decade that several flavonoids from oranges, lemons and ruby and yellow grapefruit, will gradually “dissolve” these fat overcoats, and allow the old fat to be used.
Flavanoids such as naringenin, hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeretin found in these fruits are particularly effective for this biological mechanism of stripping away this tough stubborn protein overcoat. Naringenin + hesperidin works better together than when their individual action. Naringening + hesperidin has proven to be an effective synergistic combination.
The problem is although you can obtain these citrus flavanoids from the fruit, skin and seeds or indeed drinking the pure juices of these fruits ( which we at PhD fully recommend the consumption of fresh fruit as part of a healthy diet) you would have to in fact consume a substantial amount of fruit or juice to get enough of these flavanoids to get any real effect, and along with that comes a whole load of fruit sugars and calories.
However these effective citrus flavanoids can be found in PhD Sinetrol + which includes a unique citrus fruit-based ingredient made from the juice, peels, and seeds of fruit prepared by physical treatment (crushing, cold-pressure, extraction, centrifugation, filtration, and spray-drying) of specific varieties of sweet and blood oranges (Citrus sinensis L.),.), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.), and guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth).
PhD Sinetrol + not only provides some of the Citrus flavanoids that target stubborn fat cells BY DEGRADING PERILLIPIN, it enhance basal endogenous lipolytic activity by the maintainence of cAMP levels through the inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE).
Compared to drinking pure fruit juice for obtaining these flavanoids, the quantity of polyphenols provided in a daily dose of PhD Sinetrol + can be found in 500ml to 1 liter of citrus juices (depending on the season and the varieties) ; this represent an extra 250 to 500kcal a day, carried by carbs (50 to 100g) – not the most beneficial aid to an effective fat loss plan.
PhD Sinetrol + acts as a fat burner, stimulating the release of free fatty acids from the fat cells. Sinetrol inhibits the activity of the phosphodiesterase PDE which increases the breakdown of triglycerides from the fat cells.
2 clinical studies on Sinetrol, both supporting the mechanism of action and bringing strong results on weight loss: an average -10% of abdominal fat, -5,15cm of waist circumference, -5,15cm of hip circumference after 3 months, with no change on food intake or physical activity were demonstrated after 3 months.
First clinical study was published in Phytomedicine
2 capsules per day provides a daily dose of 900mg